• April 19th, 2016

Philosophy book questions

Paper, Order, or Assignment Requirements

No essay. Questions just need to be answered in a few sentences. Please leave questions/answers numbered.

 

Chapter 7

  1. Explain the role hedonistic thinking played in the

origins of Stoicism.

  1. How did Cynicism influence Stoicism? Be specific.
  2. What is the relationship of Socrates to Cynicism

and Stoicism?

  1. How are the Logos and fate related in Stoicism?
  2. Identify and discuss possible problems with the

Stoic notion of fate.

 

Chapter 8

  1. Compare and contrast the classical worldview with

the medieval.

  1. What basic conditions led to the development of

Christian philosophy? Where did the need for

interpretation come from?

  1. In your own words, describe the chief characteristics

of Scholastic scholarship.

  1. In what ways is the medieval scholar the forerunner

of the modern professor?

  1. Which of the Five Ways do you think is the

weakest? Explain why.

 

Soccio, Douglas J. (2012-01-01). Archetypes of Wisdom: An Introduction to Philosophy (Page 244). Cengage Textbook. Kindle Edition.

 

Chapter 9

  1. What was Descartes’s proposal, and how did his

Scholastic education influence it?

  1. Give a brief summary of the role methodic doubt

plays in Descartes’s overall eff ort to discover certain

knowledge.

  1. How is skepticism important to Cartesian philosophy?
  2. What is the evil genius, and what is its significance

to the Cartesian Genesis?

  1. Can the Evil Genius refute the cogito? Is there any

way to “refute” the cogito?

 

Soccio, Douglas J. (2012-01-01). Archetypes of Wisdom: An Introduction to Philosophy (Page 280). Cengage Textbook. Kindle Edition.

 

Chapter 10

  1. Outline the development of the “epistemological turn”

from Descartes through Locke and Berkeley to Hume.

  1. In your own words, reconstruct the basic empirical

critique of rationalism.

  1. What is the tabula rasa? What is its significance to

Locke’s empiricism?

  1. Explain the philosophical significance of the

question “Does a tree falling in the forest make a

sound if no one is there to hear it?” Then answer it

as Berkeley would.

  1. Why is the distinction between impressions and

ideas important to Hume’s philosophy?

 

Soccio, Douglas J. (2012-01-01). Archetypes of Wisdom: An Introduction to Philosophy (Page 312). Cengage Textbook. Kindle Edition.

 

 

Chapter 11

 

  1. Why did Kant think it necessary to posit the

existence of the noumenal world?

  1. How does Kant answer Hume’s bundle theory of the

self? Do you think he is successful?

  1. Describe the moral dimension as Kant

understood it.

  1. Explain the reasoning behind Kant’s eff orts to make

morality a matter of motives, not consequences.

  1. What is a good will, according to Kant, and why

does he claim that the only thing good in itself is a

good will?

 

Soccio, Douglas J. (2012-01-01). Archetypes of Wisdom: An Introduction to Philosophy (Page 342). Cengage Textbook. Kindle Edition.

 

Chapter 12

  1. Identify and discuss some of the social and

economic factors that influenced Bentham’s

development of simple utilitarianism.

  1. What is “the Malthusian universe”?
  2. Apply Bentham’s hedonic calculus to a problem

in your own life. Does doing so help you

deal with it in a “scientific” way—or does it

complicate the problem? If it complicates things,

is this due to some flaw in the calculus or to its

novelty?

  1. What role does psychological egoism play in

Bentham’s simple utilitarianism?

  1. Did Bentham include animals in the moral domain?

Why or why not?

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