# Applying research

**Paper, Order, or Assignment Requirements**

This is an essay for applying research we had an essay before but working as group also we have an questionnaire in the first essay now I have to use the questioner in the last essay which is this . This is the topic of the essay and explain to you how to write the essay , As a group you will use the questionnaire to collect data from a sample of 40 individuals. You will then be required to analyse the data individually using analytic software and produce your own 2500 word individual research report outlining your findings. Now I have the result of the questionnaire with the questions . I hope are doing the essay good also I just want you to read what I put it also read the (doing your research well because will explain you more) This is all the result of the questioner

1/ what is your gender ?

(Gender) PHI Chi-Square Cramer’s V

1-5 .890 .890 .068

Question 5/Do you know what ‘Trident ‘ is and its significance ?

1-6 .659 .659 .347

6/On a scale one to ten , with ten being most worried and one being the least ,how worried are you of the threat of a nuclear attack ?

1-7 .469 .469 .176

7/Is there any situation where the use of nuclear weapons would ,in your opinion , be justified ?

1-8 .273 .273 .230

8/Do you feel that the UK having nuclear weapons makes for a safer country?

1-9 .501 .501 .170

9/The annual cost of maintaining the UKs nuclear weapons is approximately 600M.Do you think this is a sensible of taxpayers’ money?

1-10 .079 .079 .414

10/ To what extent do you agree with the following statement ‘The is a place for nuclear weapons in the modern world?

1-11 .810 .810 .180

11/To what do you agree with the following statement :the use of nuclear weapons has had a positive impact on the world up until now?

1-12 .286 .286 .226

12/Should the UK give up its nuclear weapons?

2/what is your age ?

(Age) PHI Chi-square Cramer’s V

2-5 .76 .76 .412

Question 5/Do you know what ‘Trident ‘ is and its significance ?

2-6 .342 .342 .419

6/On a scale one to ten , with ten being most worried and one being the least ,how worried are you of the threat of a nuclear attack ?

2-7 .307 .307 .345

7/Is there any situation where the use of nuclear weapons would ,in your opinion , be justified ?

2-8 .075 .075 .416

8/Do you feel that the UK having nuclear weapons makes for a safer country?

2-9 .906 .906 .223

9/The annual cost of maintaining the UKs nuclear weapons is approximately 600M.Do you think this is a sensible of taxpayers’ money?

2-10 .555 .555 .307

10/ To what extent do you agree with the following statement ‘The is a place for nuclear weapons in the modern world?

2-11 .600 .600 .301

11/To what do you agree with the following statement :the use of nuclear weapons has had a positive impact on the world up until now?

2-12 .577 .577 .295

12/Should the UK give up its nuclear weapons?

3/Who would you be most likely to vote for ?

(Vote) PHI Chi-square Cramer’s V

3-5 .948 .948 .210

Question 5/Do you know what ‘Trident ‘ is and its significance ?

3-6 .001 .001 .210

6/On a scale one to ten , with ten being most worried and one being the least ,how worried are you of the threat of a nuclear attack ?

3-7 .252 .252 .377

7/Is there any situation where the use of nuclear weapons would ,in your opinion , be justified ?

3-8 .164 .164 .402

8/Do you feel that the UK having nuclear weapons makes for a safer country?

3-9 .229 .229 .387

9/The annual cost of maintaining the UKs nuclear weapons is approximately 600M.Do you think this is a sensible of taxpayers’ money?

3-10 .12 .12 .458

10/ To what extent do you agree with the following statement ‘The is a place for nuclear weapons in the modern world?

3-11 .380 .380 .384

11/To what do you agree with the following statement :the use of nuclear weapons has had a positive impact on the world up until now?

3-12 .238 .238 .381

12/Should the UK give up its nuclear weapons?

4/How many children do you have?

(children) PHI Chi-square Cramer’s V

4-5 .054 .054 .425

Question 5/Do you know what ‘Trident ‘ is and its significance ?

4-6 .345 .345 .419

6/On a scale one to ten , with ten being most worried and one being the least ,how worried are you of the threat of a nuclear attack ?

4-7 .257 .257 .350

7/Is there any situation where the use of nuclear weapons would ,in your opinion , be justified ?

4-8 .638 .638 .284

8/Do you feel that the UK having nuclear weapons makes for a safer country?

4-9 .741 .741 .267

9/The annual cost of maintaining the UKs nuclear weapons is approximately 600M.Do you think this is a sensible of taxpayers’ money?

4-10 .786 .786 .275

10/ To what extent do you agree with the following statement ‘The is a place for nuclear weapons in the modern world?

4-11 .250 .250 .349

11/To what do you agree with the following statement :the use of nuclear weapons has had a positive impact on the world up until now?

4-12 .439 .439 .320

12/Should the UK give up its nuclear weapons?

I have an three lecture I would like you to follow all the lecture and write what they need from me to do in the essay

Quantitative Data Analysis – a case study:

The Applying Research

Data analysis (SPSS) in your report �

General themes for your results�?

Results are the work you are doing in the IT labs.

Hand in date 14/4/2016!

Refer back to your research hypothesis and main research questions as focus.

Keep to the structure and meet the criteria for the results section- look on BB!

Your decision what questions you discuss in the main body of the results- remember it is individual!

Use your discretion in how you want to demonstrate your results- what charts to include, graphs…

Make use of the appendix!

Importance of structure for your results!

Make a clear attempt at both descriptive and Inferential.

Focus on explaining, illustrating, demonstrating and analysing.

Charts and graphs- what do they add to your work?

Show a more advanced level of analysis- include secondary results.

Aim for coherent, structured and analytical work.

�Why conduct statistical analysis?�

It is a statistical analysis module- show you understand quantitative data!

Statistical analysis can tell you about your hypothesis and Null hypothesis. Is your data are statistically significant?

You need to consider:

Why you would use statistics.

What data you have

What is the most appropriate statistical measures to use�

Important issues for your report� ?

Be imaginative and keep your focus on your research question!

‘Balancing act’ to keep within the word count- requires some skill!

Consider all of the data collected BUT in relation to the statistics…

Which is the most relevant data do statistical analysis on.

Which variables you should chose to compare and contrast.

Go beyond the SPSS booklet for structure- show your ability!

�Types of analysis…

Firstly-Descriptive statistics�?

For the results section -two types of statistics: Descriptive and Inferential.

Refer to the SPSS booklet for guidance!

Descriptive Statistics are all about measuring averages, allow us to make general statements about particular phenomena.

Descriptive statistics include measures such as the Median, the Mode, and the Mean.

�Make sure your results make sense in terms of what you see!�

“A common mistake on the part of the novice in statistics is to disregard the descriptive analysis in favour of the inferential analysis…consequences of this is that trend are not understood or over looked and the results of the inferential statistics appear meaningless”(Cramer and Howitt 2004: 50)

�Stage 1: Defining Data� ?

To be able to use statistical tests appropriately you need to know what sort of data your questions are creating.

There are four different levels of data:

Level 1 Nominal: This is all about putting data into categories.

Level 2 Ordinal: This is all about putting things in order.

Levels 3 and 4, Interval and Ratio: This is all about real numbers

�Examples� :

1. Do you drink alcohol? Yes No (Nominal)

2. How much do you agree with the following statement: ‘I am a heavy drinker’ (Ordinal)

Strongly agree agree disagree strongly disagree

3. On a scale of 1 – 5 how satisfied are you with how the police deal with binge drinking? (Ordinal)

4. How many times a week you drink? ___(Ratio)

� Different averages:

Calculating mean, median and mode� :

These allow you to make general statements about trends in your data.

Calculate your level of data- can you do all of these??

Mean- Add up the totals and divide by the number of cases. (Ratio data, but is sometimes used in ordinal scores when asking to score satisfaction).

Median- The middle value (Ordinal data has an order).

Mode- The most frequent answer: Used on Nominal or any other level of data.

�Stage 2: Averages and frequency tables�

Averages are often used with Frequency tables. These allow us to visually present data to make simple observations.

Descriptive data allows us to make general statements about our data, trends, was it what we predicted?

Does it fit with our stated hypothesis?

Can you identify some patterns occurring within the data.

Are these what you predicted?

��statistic :

Data presented: Whether they agreed or disagreed with a statement: (agree was coded 1 and disagree was coded 2)

There were 404 participants in the study.

1 person did not answer the question.

The most frequent answer for all statements was ‘agree’ (coded as 1).

Only the Mode here is useful, as the data is calculated as Nominal. (indicate this in your work)

Table NOT needed but make clear reference to the Mode/Mean/Median!

�I have always felt save in Lincoln without cctv

The following table represents the results for the statement ‘ I have always felt safe in Lincoln even without CCTV’.

260 participants agreed with the statement.

132 disagreed with the statement.

In percentage terms without the missing value 64.4% agreed, 32.7% disagreed and 3% did not know. This is stated as the valid percent.

The Cumulative percent is a ‘running total’.

Be Selective- Choose some for results- why relevant?

�Descriptive stats- Summary

Allows us to make general statements about our data.

Show trends related to your predictions.

Keep reflecting back to the hypothesis in your discussion.

You can identify some patterns that are occurring within your data- are these different to literature trends.

Make comparisons between filter questions, if they said yes to one then what did that percent answer to another question, this is good way of testing validity and reliability.

�Graphs and charts to show your data.

�

Trial and error!

You can draw these on SPSS by using the Chart Builder or selecting the graph menu.

It is crucial to use an appropriate chart for your data.

What do they tell us about your trends?

The most appropriate -bar and pie charts?

Be sensible about the types of charts that you use.

Explain and make sure they are correctly labelled!�

Charts and Tables: do’s and don’ts�

It is best to use charts and tables when you have a number of different variables.

..These are best for questions that have several choices:

How much do you agree with the following statement: ‘I am a heavy drinker’.

Strongly agree agree disagree strongly disagree

Don’t create a table and a chart for the same question. Choose one or the other.

Always discuss any chart or table that you use.

�Stage 3- Inferential Statistics� ?

The use of Inferential Statistics is a little more complex.

Accepting the Null Hyp or Hyp???

They attempt to establish whether a relationship between variables is significant or just by chance.

Are your results representative of the whole population that you are trying to study? Be critical!!

Inferential tests- measure the statistical significance of your result.

Very important for your analysis!!

�‘statistically significant difference’�

“A statistically significant difference” simply means there is statistical evidence that the independent variable affects the dependent variable, and that any difference seen is not purely by chance.

Apply to your results!

There are two different levels of test: Parametric and non-parametric.

Parametric tests are stronger and more accurate than non-parametric tests.

You need to know which type of test is appropriate for your data?

�Parametric and

non parametric Tests�

Parametric tests -calculation involves an estimate of population parameters made on the basis of sample statistics.

Larger the sample, more accurate the estimate will be!

Opportunity to be critical of your size of sample- limitations?

Was your sample collected in a statistically random way???

IF NOT… Yours is…

Non parametric data need not be from a normally distributed population. Because you are using a convenience sample, yours will be non parametric!

�Stage 3 continued: Inferential tests� :

This is about measuring whether there is a significant difference between data and also how strong any association (correlation) is between variables.

Show understanding in this stage- 4 or 5 different combinations of your variables

Remember- keep your focus on hypothesis!

How do you do Inferential stats? There are THREE simple stages to your inferential stats!

�Stage 1 -Create a Crosstabulation�

Can only be used with data that is in categories (Nominal/Ordinal).

To help you uncover patterns in the data

Ask can you see a visual difference between variables?

�This plots gender against the question whether people think CCTV cameras have clear images.

�Stage 1 Create a Crosstabulation�

Can you see a visual difference between variables?

(The expected count is done for the benefit of the chi-square test to make sure that the expected counts are over 5, so that it is valid to use the chi-square measure. In this case it is.)

There is a visual difference although the sample size is a little uneven…

But is this visual difference statistically significant?

�Stage 2: Is the visual difference statistically significant? chi-square test�

In statistics, a result is called significant if it is unlikely to have occurred by chance.

If the significance value (p) of Chi-square p is more than 0.05, the null hypothesis is accepted and the result is therefore not significant.

If the significance value (p) of Chi-square p is less than or equal to 0.05 but greater than 0.01 than the null hypothesis is rejected and the result is significant beyond the 5% level.

�Here is the Chi-Square test for the previous data�

For the chi-square value of 6.766, there is a statistically significant difference between males and females in answering the question, as p=0.034.

The difference is therefore significant beyond the 5% level (p=0,05). The significance level is actually 3.4%.

The statement under the table also tells us that the criteria for the expected counts is okay. Expected counts relate to sample size.

�Stage 3: How strong is any association we see?

Phi and Cramer’s V�

Phi and Cramer’s V are statistics which measure the strength of the association between variables.

Phi and Cramer’s V are called ‘correlation coefficients’.

Phi is usually used when the crosstab is a 2 x 2 configuration. Cramer’s V is used for any larger configuration.

These are measured in values from 0 (weak) to 1 (strong). Any value of approx 0.5 or above is seen as relatively strong.

�Tips on what to include in your results�

Focus on key findings of your results.- Decide INDIVIDUALLY not as a group!

Remember to address your hypothesis… do the findings support your hypothesis or your null hypothesis?

If your hypothesis is about gender differences do not spend the whole project talking about age differences!

Be creative- apply secondary literature and use terminology.

�The report must include� :

All three stages:

Define your data- mean/ median/ mode.

Descriptives- Frequency tables discuss and commented on.

Inferential- Crosstabs with chi square and phi/cramers V calculations: discussed and commented on.

Appropriate bar or pie charts: discussed and commented on.

�What to include…FAQ�

Do I include all the charts?

No- your choice- make sure most appropriate!

How many inferential stats?

Approx 5 Crosstabs with chi square and phi/Cramers V calculations.

Cut and paste these into your Results write up and describe and discuss them.

Important – Consider the limitations of these results: What might they be? Are there implications from the small sample size?

Problems/trouble shooting- be critical of your findings but do not be overly critical if you have no significant results. This is a perfectly valid finding which you need to discuss and not a failing in your part!!!!

�Final thoughts!�

Projects should compare their findings with other relevant secondary sources, both in introduction, methods and results!

Include your research design, questionnaires both pilot and final (amended) copy in the appendices.

Reflect on why you may have got the results you collected?

BE ANALYTICAL AND REFLECT ON FINDINGS!

Also here one lecture just follow the structure

�(Doing your research project� )

Why write reports???

�

Core study skills-follow the criteria, guidance, work from feedback-ask tutor!

“Creativity does not exist in a vacuum”(Sliverman 2014: 388) Techniques to writing reports and skills needed.

Good research “the identification of a worthwhile topic and the selection and competent use of an appropriate method” (Gilbert 2003: 1)

Concepts and the application of concepts -central aspects of conducting research.

�Why quantitative methods?�

Develop your research methods skills & levels of confidence!

Quantitative methods involve numerical approach to both the collection and analysis of data.

Remember deduction…embedding concepts within your hypothesis and measuring this!

“The researcher must skilfully deduce a hypothesis and then translate it into operational terms” (2016:21)

Argue/justify- most appropriate approach- to fit the method that best fits your research objectives.

�Doig and Littlewood 1992 (cited Gilbert p33) “Mixed methods research strategies are particularly effective in policy orientated research..”

Needs to have a clear structure -Use sub-headings, be concise.

Finding the balance between description and remaining analytical and challenging.

Hart (1998: 172) – based on existing knowledge, developing that knowledge using reasoned argument, sound evidence and a critical and reflexive stance.

�Abstract� :

Starting your structure for the report- follow criteria on Blackboard!

Brief general summary of what you did/how you did it and what you found out.

Gilbert 2003 -abstract has a double function, serving as an overview and also as a self standing summary.

Self explanatory! Your reflection!

Not looking at secondary literature but on YOUR work!

Should outline the topic focus, methods, key findings. Only a paragraph!

Look in journals for examples!!!

�MPs’ Attitudes to Welfare: A New Consensus?

HUGH BOCHEL and ANDREW DEFTY�

The post-war ‘consensus’ on welfare was based largely in the perceived agreement of leading politicians of Conservative and Labour parties on the role of the mixed economy and the welfare state. (explanation of the topic/ background) However, from the late 1970s economic and demographic pressures and ideological challenges, particularly from the New Right, led to cuts in spending on welfare, increased private involvement and an emphasis on more individualistic and selectivist approaches to provision.( Why interesting to research!) Recently some scholars have begun to discuss the emergence of a ‘new liberal consensus’ around welfare provision.(Not identifying academics but outlining a noticed trend!) Drawing upon interviews with 10 per cent of the House of Commons, this article examines the extent to which a new political consensus upon welfare can be identified. (Methodological approach) In addition to analysing responses to questions on welfare issues, it considers the extent to which MPs themselves believe there to be some degree of consensus in approaches to welfare.(more depth to why chose that method) It also considers whether any consensus exists merely in the political language used in relation to welfare issues, or whether there is a more substantive convergence.(findings!)

(Published Online December 21 2006)

�Hypothesis and Null Hypothesis� :

Refer back to the research design!

Look at feedback- did it need amendment?

Workable??? represents the condition to be tested and should be paired with a ‘Null Hypothesis’:

Follow and act on feedback on your research plan- opposite of each other?

Eg: Hyp: It is expected that female university students at Lincoln will be more fearful of crime than male Lincoln university students.

Null Hyp: There will be no difference in the fear of crime between male and female Lincoln university students

�Core to your research analysis.

“A hypothesis is a reasoned but provisional supposition about the relationship between two or more social phenomena, states in terms that can be empirically tested and which forms the focus for the research, particularly in quantitative studies” Payne and Payne (2004; 112)

Tentative statement (a ‘working hypothesis’) -leads to research and directs the focus of the research.

A ‘Relational hypothesis’ -refers to the possible relationship between two or more variables.

�Identifying variables� :

A variable is ‘something which is free to vary’.

We may create the hypothesis or prediction that:

‘People who use drugs regularly are more likely than people who do not use drugs, to take part in burglary.’

To test this we could gather two groups together to test our hypothesis. Independent variable (I.V.) and the Dependent variable. (D.V.)

What is an Intervening (Extraneous) variable?

Can/ should be critical of the limitations with a quantitative methodological approach in your methods discussion.

�Variables to explain in your report:

Predictions made referring to variables.

Four main characteristics of a hypothesis:

Expressed as a statement, not a question

It addresses a single phenomenon or single relationship

It is clearly stated and has some logical consistency

It is empirically testable (Payne and Payne 2003: 114)

Consider whether your hypothesis addresses all of these????

Is yours workable? Remember your hypothesis is integral to your project!

�Introduction� :

A very important section- introduces why you did the research, objectives, ideology.

Remember that you must reference any sources used- Plagiarism!!!

Hart 1998 :9 -expected to search further relevant research and literature in their topic.

You need to integrate ideas, concepts, theories and apply method.

Apply relevant sources!

Show command of your subject area, to understand problems, justify topic choice design and methods.

�Useful checklist outlining the five main components of an introduction: (Hart 1998: 196)

Aim Means

To announce the topic of your review a clear and concise statement

To state the purpose of your review a careful explanation of what you aim to achieve

To explain the relevance of your topic an indication of its importance in the literature

To establish your credibility Information on why you should be seen as competent to write about this topic

To preview the main points that you Advance notice of the structure of make in the main body of the text your text.

�Identify your topic/area- core trends in debates.

Think of the sentence structure and how you are explaining.

Gilbert (2003:370) The hallmark of a good introduction is that it locates a ‘hole’/ ‘gap’ in the research literature that the rest of the paper will fill..

Look at the research focus and theoretical level.

Identify the clear focus of your research- why are they significant points?

Do not talk about methods in your introduction but ‘set the scene’ on the topic.

�Context/literature review� :

Look at how your subject has developed and terminology established, the inter relationship between your topic and others contexts?

Distinguish what you have already done and what needs to be researched.

Important variables and those relevant to the topic

Gaining a new perspective

Identifying relationships ideas, and practice

Context establishment of topic

Rationalising the significance of problems

Enhancing the subject vocabulary/ meaning

Understanding the structure

Ideas and they related to applications

Placing in historical context show familiarity with developments.

�Methodology section� :

Follow the structure on Blackboard! Why are questionnaires the most appropriate methods.

Discuss the rationale and format of your questionnaire.

Why you chose the questions you did. (Tip- You could relate this to other academic studies if appropriate).

Limits of the questions? Did you want to ask questions but couldn’t?

Simmons (2003:86) -Challenge for researchers is how to select questions that will obtain most valuable and relevant Information.

Explain Scales and ‘brainstorming’- coding and why?

Always relate back to hypothesis and your overall research question.

�Some key hints for designing questionnaire:�

Relevance to participant: Assess if the sample population will have the knowledge.

Clarity: Not ambiguous.

Avoid jargon: Place in a frame of reference

Leading questions & double negatives -why avoided ‘don’t you agree’…

Hypothetical question -best avoided- but can be used- ‘when’ and ‘why’!

Secondary information: Did you use visual prompts? Why?

Filter questions- importance of instructions (Gilbert 203: 94)

Disadvantages of closed questions? Possible misinterpretation?

�Role of pilot� :

Very important part of the research process!

Role of the pilot- ‘Meaning’ is checked through pilot- an opportunity to test the questions and the flow of the overall questionnaire.

What happened with yours??

“Good questionnaires do not just happen. They involve careful thinking, numerous drafts, thorough evaluations and extensive testing. Despite shortcomings questionnaires have the great advantage of generating…..coverage of large representative sample and of being relatively efficient..” (De Vaus 2003: 105)

�Sampling� :

Type of sample you used and what were its limitations in terms of representativeness.

The type of sample depends on your research aims, objectives- you need to be able to make inferences about the chosen population.

Process- explain how you defined the population.

Maximise the response rate?

Probability and non probability??

�Key issues to address in your report� :

Issues such as ethics, gender and race, how you dealt with the concepts of reliability and validity.

You should highlight the methodological limitations.

What would you would change in your project?

Discuss the process, rationale ,aims, did they alter? How did they develop? Limitations of this approach?

Designing the research, helpfulness of the plan?

How you tackled some of the problems this raised?

�Ethical considerations �:

Ethical concerns- discuss on the connections between values and the research process.

You need to address whether your research is indeed value neutral?

Nagel (1961) questioned to what extent we can expect any research to be value free?

A technical matter and not a theoretical consideration?

Ethics are important to all research projects!

�Reliability; Representativeness;Validity� :

Reliability: Whether results are reliable or repeatable?

Representativeness & capacity to be replicated? External validity- can it be generalised?

Validity: measuring what it needs to? Internal validity- Levels of causality? Causal relationships?

Causal impact-Independent and dependent variables?

Levels of confidence

Use jargon and apply to your research!

�Key advice for writing your report� :

Key points to remember-

Social research always has a meaning- an objective.

In the results relate your findings back to secondary research.

Need to raise an issue & relate back to your hypothesis.

Can be critical of secondary research and on methods- potential limitations.

Show your awareness of other work on your topic, how can help with the scope of your research?

Have you identified a ‘research gap’? Assumed findings? Different findings?

�Practical limitations� :

Practical limitations and ideas for further study: What would you do if you had the chance to develop this into a larger study? Expand into a regional study? Mixture of methods?

Bibliography: A list of books/journals that you have referred to in the study.

Referencing & plagiarism� .

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