• March 2nd, 2016

Heart Rate Before and After Coffee

Paper, Order, or Assignment Requirements

A cover page, reference page, and appendix are required. The appendix comes at the end of the paper and should include, at a minimum, data from a newspaper/journal article, research study, university/corporate report, or national data set. Put this in Appendix 1. Your cover page must have your name, title of the paper, type of assignment project, course name/number, university name, term of enrollment, and optional picture that represents the study you are conducting. Your reference page must have a minimum of two references outside of the textbook or materials in this class. Other appendices might include graphs or charts from outside sources, although some of these should be in the body of the paper in order to present your findings so that the reader can see what you are conveying.

Part 1: Primary Data Analysis:

1. Before you can examine the data, you must understand the problem and determine the research questions. What statistics will explain your situation? What graphs, charts, or tables will help readers


understand your points?


Your first two paragraphs should discuss the importance of this issue or situation, clearly defined population, explicitly defined sample, and research questions. In these first two paragraphs, you also need a minimum of two references that present the history, background, or underlying ideas in order to frame the discussion. A minimum of two references to outside sources such as data from a newspaper/journal article, research study, university/corporate report, or national data set. You must cite your sources and put a minimum of two references in the reference page, not including the textbook.

Your next two paragraphs should introduce the company/organization and why it is important to them. Please include:

a. A description of the historical and practical context, variables, units, terminology, and example/application to the real world.

b. Clearly defined dependent and independent variables

c. Levels of measurement of the variables (nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio)

d. Sampling methodology

e. A minimum of one of each, preferably more: confounding, lurking, and missing variables. State the problems you might encounter with missing variables or information.

f. Experimental or observational study; qualitative or quantitative research

g. One or more graphs, charts, images to give the reader a visual understanding of the background of the topic.

h. A description of the information you collect and how it relates to the big picture of social and economic trends.


Part 2: Examination of Descriptive Statistics

2. Your next step is to collect organize, and examine the data. This section is designed to present the calculations, graphs, and explanation of what you have found. Since all inferential tests are based on several assumptions, before you conduct the inferential statistics, you want to make sure that you are not violating any assumptions. In Part 2, you need to answer the following questions:

a. Are the scores normally distributed?


Construct a histogram, scatterplot, frequency polygon, or other graph to show the nature, shape, or distribution of the data to include in your paper. This graph will appear in the body of the paper.

Hint #1: A visual inspection of this data can provide information on normality, outliers, spread, and shape. First, ask yourself: Is the graph bell-shaped or skewed? After your inspection, you must perform calculations or use statistics to confirm normality, outliers, and information about the distribution.

Hint #2: If the distribution is symmetric, can it be considered normal? Read about skewed distributions to determine if the distribution is skewed.

b. Find the mean, median, and mode. These Measures of Central Tendency can help you better understand and describe your data.


Hint: Consider any outliers to see if they are drawing off the data. Describe these measures.

c. Variation: Find the range, variance, and standard deviation. These Measures of the Variation show the spread of the data. Describe the dispersion or the amount that the sample values vary among themselves. You might also want to use the five number summary and provide a boxplot to consider your data or use percentiles and other measures of spread.


d. Outliers: Identify any sample values that lie very far away from the vast majority of the other sample values.


Hint: You could do this using a visual inspection of the graph, but just looking at the graph is not enough for this course. Since you have learned statistics, you must use a mathematical method for determining outliers for this report. After all, you are armed with statistics to prove whether or not

there is an outlier. You may either use the standard deviation method to identify extreme scores or 1.5 x IQR. Use whatever method you want to determine if there are any outliers and explain what you did and the calculations you used to determine if any data lies outside of the boundaries.

e. Corrections: Based on your inspection of the outliers are there any errors that should be corrected? How would you correct them? Discuss the implications of this result.


Part 3: Examination of Inferential Statistics

3. Assuming that all assumptions have been met, it is now time for you to conduct some inferential statistics. While you will need to do a hypothesis test, you will also either (1) compute a confidence interval, (2) find out if there is a correlation, or (3) use a regression line. You need to describe your hypotheses, assumptions, and tests used. For the hypothesis test:

a. Present your assumptions

b. State null and alternative hypotheses

c. Select the significance level and determine if it is a one or two-tailed test

d. Select your test statistic and compute the value (traditional method or p-value method)

e. Presentation of the confidence interval, correlation coefficient, or regression line

f. Make a decision and explain the inferential statistics and how they connect to the research questions and study’s purpose. Determine how the inferences you made relate to the research you collected in Part 1 and the descriptive statistics you presented in Part 2.


Hint: A final conclusion that said “reject the null hypothesis” by itself without explanation is basically worthless to those who hired you. Similarly, stating that the conclusion is false or rejected is not sufficient.

Part 4: Conclusion and Recommendations

Using the results from your hypothesis test, correlation, confidence interval, and/or other measures, explain what the results mean.

a. What can you determine from the descriptive and inferential statistics?

b. What information might lead you to a different conclusion?

c. What variables were needed to present a more thorough analysis?

d. What additional information would be valuable to help draw a more certain conclusion?

e. What qualitative or quantitative data would you want to collect if you were hired to do a follow up study?

f. Using the research you gathered and information you presented, what can you now state about the issue or topic that is further clarified or needs to be further analyzed.

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