• January 31st, 2016

Studying the effect of appearance (formal informal dress) on how people react to you by showing their thankfulness when you open the door for them.

Paper, Order, or Assignment Requirements

• Introduction

– Thesis Statement (Underline or Bold Font the Thesis)
– Literature Review
• (Minimum 2 sources: Journal articles or Books)
• Methodology Section(see below for more info on methodology)
• Results Section– At a minimum 1‐2 pages. No measurement necessary – No use of the word significant or numbers proofing the hypothesis.
———————————-
methodology:

• The methodology section describes the important details of the study.
• May include aspects such as: – What the researcher did
– Where and how the research was conducted
– How the researcher impacted the study. • Impact of researcher’s actions on subjects

Purpose
• The purpose of the methodology section is to allow readers to evaluate for themselves the quality of the research.
• In addition, the methodology functions as a guide for the reader to answer questions they may have about the study.

Examples
• What are the strengths and weaknesses of the research?
• How valid are the findings?
• How reliable are the findings?
– Replication: If someone else did the same study would they get the same or similar results
• How generalizable are the findings?
– How applicable are the findings to different settings or groups

Sections within the Methodology •
Part I: Overview and Access
• Provide the reader with a general idea of what was done.
• The first sentence should provide an overview by briefly describing subjects interviewed or observed.

–ex: Interviews were conducted with baristas at starbucks
ex– City planning documents were analyzed at the public works department.

• Was there a gatekeeper?
• What type of access was granted? – Was access conditional?
– Was confidentiality promised? – Review of results or findings?
Access
• The remainder of the section /paragraphs should explain how access to conduct the research was obtained.
– For example, could the research have been done without some type of assistance or intervention from someone else?
• Remember, has to do with your own research.

How were subjects obtained?
• The answer to this question differs from one type of research project to another, as well as within similar methodologies.
• What role did the researcher take?
– Was the researcher a known or unknown, a participant observer, or something else?

Review: Different Roles • Non‐Participant observer
– Not part of active setting
• Unknown Participant Observer
– Relatively concealed, interacts with those observed, research objectives unknown to those being observed.
• Known Participant Observer
– Participant in group or setting, objectives known to those being observed, informed of research.

Example
– Individuals were observed shoplifting through a two‐ way mirror.
– I did not inform customers of the research agenda or that they were being observed.
– Individuals were approached during working hours and asked if they would be willing to participate as subjects in my research.
– I informed the members of the office that I would be observing their activities as part of a research project.

How much detail
• The length of this section depends on how much information is necessary to provide a clear understanding of the research.
• This will depend on the topic, thesis, and the number or kinds of observations.
• Typically two or more paragraphs.

Part Two: Subjects & Setting
• This section addresses the specifics concerning the subjects who were observed or interviewed and where and how these observations or interviews were made.
• Helps the reader understand the strengths & weaknesses
• Describe subjects & setting in enough detail to provide relevant information.
– Not everything will be relevant

studying?
Observations
• An idea of what the people are like that you observed.
• What may be appropriate or relevant
• Is the information related to what you are
– May have an impact on what you are observing and recording.
– May have an influence on the answers you obtain 14
How much description • Characterizing groups vs. each individual
• Provide the reader with enough information to form an idea about the group, but not each single individual.
• You may want to describe the setting as well.
• Briefly discuss how and where the observations were done.
• Introduces the reader to types of situations arose during the observations.

Interviews
• Provide information on the site or location of interviews
– *Note also applicable for observations
• Important in terms of any extenuating circumstances.
– How comfortable was the subject?
• For example, asking private information
– How do you like your boss? Is the boss present?
– How do you like working here? Customers or owner present?
• What types of situations arose during the interviews?
• The reader needs to know where and how interviews occurred.

Part Three: Data Collection • Discussing the Observations
• How were the observations made?
• Allows the reader to judge the quality or validity of the research.
– Provide a visual depiction of what was happening during the observations.
– Focus on the details
• For example, customers at a coffee shop
• Outcomes will differ based on the site
• Items that caused problems
• Difficulties arose and how they were handled

Why this information is included?
• Generalizability: research observations applicable to other sites or maybe it is unusual or unique
• Interested in determining what could have influenced the results or findings.

Data Collection: Interviews
• What type of interviews were conducted
– Structured: Same questions
– Unstructured: Unfolding conversation
– Combination of both structured and unstructured
• Same initial question, subsequent questions based on what each individual reveals.
• What areas were of primary interest?
• What questions were asked?
– It is not necessary to list every single question
• Will differ from each research project: handled differently in each situation.

What was done with the data?
• How was the information documented or archived? – Did you audio record?
– Did you take notes during the interview ?
– Did you take mental notes and later record them?
• What impact on the subjects might your method have had?
– How might it have influenced the questions you asked (or did not ask?
• How did you analyze the data?

Review
• A general framework for the methodology:
• Part I: Overview and Access • Part Two: Subjects & Setting • Part Three: Data Collection

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